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Detector Characteristics

FLAMINGOS-2 uses a Teledyne HAWAII-2 array with 2048x2048 pixels. Unlike more recent versions such as the HAWAII-2RG, the detector in FLAMINGOS-2 does not offer on-detector arithmetics such as image coadds before readout.


Detector Characteristics
Array HAWAII-2 (HgCdTe) FPA 109
Pixel format 2048x2048 18 μm pixels
Spectral Response 0.9 - 2.4 μm
Dark Current 0.5 e-/s/pix
Read noise (single CDS pair) 11.7 ± 0.2 e-
Read noise (nreads ≥ 8) < 5 e-
Gain 4.44 ± 0.35 e-/ADU
Well depth 155,400 e-
Linearity range (<0.5%)
(Ks-band, laboratory)
4000-22000 ADU
Saturation limit 35000 ADU
Quantum efficiency 66% (J-band)
50% (K-band)


About the read noise

The read noise of FLAMINGOS-2 is a function of both the detector and the MCE-4 electronics. The mean RMS read noise for a single CDS pair ("single read") is between 11.6 e- to 14.3 e- depending on the VRESET value. For multiple reads, the read noise drops more slowly than the theoretically expected 1/√(nreads) (see here). This is consistent with other HAWAII-II arrays using Fowler sampling.

An effective read noise of <5 e- RMS is achieved for nreads of 8 or higher. In imaging applications, the FLAMINGOS-2 detector is always sky-noise limited using single reads.